Nicolas Holiber`s old wood carvings highlight the threat that climate change poses to bird towns. While strengthening CNN`s ambitions is an important objective of the global inventory, efforts beyond mitigation are evaluated. The five-year revisions will also assess adaptation, climate change provisions, and technology development and transfer.  Most of the 2030 CO2 emission reduction commitments, made by 184 countries under the Paris Agreement, are far from enough to keep global warming well below 3.6 degrees Fahrenheit (2 degrees Celsius). Some countries will not meet their commitments and some of the world`s largest CO2 emitters will increase their emissions further, according to a group of world-class climate scientists. Whatever happens, the country will have lost credibility in climate protection, Oppenheimer says. “The United States can`t just step in and pretend it`s all back to 2015,” he says. “It`s going to have to work to regain trust.” Although the United States and Turkey are not parties to the agreement, as they have not indicated their intention to withdraw from the 1992 UNFCCC, they will continue to be required, as an “Annex 1” country under the UNFCCC, to end national communications and establish an annual inventory of greenhouse gases.  So far, the European Union has been at the forefront of investment in the green recovery.
Around 30% of the EU-wide 750 billion euro ($891 billion) stimulus package and the 2021-2027 budget of 1.1 trillion euros ($1.3 trillion) will be spent on climate-friendly investments. The European Investment Bank (EIB) intends to align its strategy with the Paris Agreement`s 1.5-C target by the end of 2020 and plans to end financing oil, gas and coal projects by the end of 2021, a decisive step for multilateral development banks. In addition, the Bank`s new “climate roadmap” promises to invest 1 trillion euros ($1,200 billion) in climate and other green measures by 2030. In the end, all parties recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and address losses and damages,” but in particular any mention of compensation or liability is excluded.  The Convention also takes up the Warsaw International Loss and Damage Mechanism, an institution that will attempt to answer questions about how to classify, address and co-responsible losses.  With climate talks stalled, it is clear that the UN process is no longer the main driver of climate change. But does it matter? To change this future, the climate target of the Paris Agreement, which is well below 2 degrees C, must be achieved. Global emissions must be halved by the next decade and net zero by the middle of the century, says energy economist Nebojsa Nakicenovic, former CEO of the International Institute for Applied System Analysis (IIASA) in Austria. In the end, nations will do what they have national political will. The Paris Agreement reflects the fact that the collective will to fight climate change remains woefully absent. National communication reports often cover several hundred pages and cover a country`s actions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, as well as a description of its weaknesses and effects of climate change.  National communications are established in accordance with guidelines adopted by the UNFCCC Conference of Parties.
Contributions (planned) at the national level (NDC), which form the basis of the Paris Agreement, are shorter and less detailed, but also follow a standard structure and are subject to technical review by experts.